Michael Corleone and Apollonia

May 29, 2010


April 14, 2010

So, here I am
On the threshold of your land
Struggling, striving, fighting,
Just to find myself
More withdrawn by you
I look, I see, I sense,
Some sort of reminiscence
Of details of cadence
Things willingly unperceived
Two plus two equals four
So now I know the crime.
Sex crime. Your crime.
Both your crime
His eyes in yours
An exquisite understanding
Between a genteel young and handsome fellow
And a lesser one.
His hand in yours you secretly stole love from eachother
In the desolate night scented by oranges
Deep down I knew
And now I have a clue of what was going on between you two
And to what the hatred for me was due.

Tribute to Rimbaud and Verlaine

April 14, 2010

Come, come to this land,
A song in my head
I’ll just dream of you instead
Dreams fill my head of love,
Adventures and joy
Come to me, my love
All the above I would sacrifice for your love.

Once in a lifetime

April 14, 2010

Once in a lifetime you find someone
I found you
Now I have shed light on it.
You are usually
All over the world
Now you decided to stay home
Why? The answer my friend, is that to each other you tend.


April 14, 2010

It hit me,
All of a sudden,
Your reserve
His resentment,
No goodbye,
No endearment,
His suspicion at our exchange,
Your indifference,
Both despising me,
Irony, superiority,
Your occasional parting afore time,
Both fleeing in each others arms
I feel poignant the defeat, cheat
Mean. Mean
You despise women
Women in androgynous forms
Come with thee both
Betrayal. Superiority. Exteriority
Love is not your priority
You disguised as women
I disguised as man with the other one I shared the pain.


April 14, 2010

Whatever I have done to you
It’s no reason of eating and tearing my soul.
Friendship, somebody to call out your name,
to share your time with…..
Disappointment of being misunderstood by your understanding
Disappointment of being what I am and first feeling accepted, even loved
To be them trashed. Kindness. Smile, gazes, laughter and then sarcasm, loneliness
It was all a joke all a stage where I was just a puppet in your hands, no more sincerity, no more honesty, it’s just tragedy, continuously, fiercely, violence, raping my feelings and my heart.
The night call and messages, one to him answered by you. Squalor. Disgusting sensuality.
Satan’s sweet eyes of desire become those of indifference where evil becomes appealing.
Complicity, atrocity my saviour and the handsome devil together. Friend no more, rejection just hatred and resentment and a lost heart and silence.


April 14, 2010

I was blind for so long
I have opened my eyes finally.
Blinded by your light,
This useless struggle
Turned my day into night.


April 14, 2010

What a waste
Your beauty such a waste
Voluptuous frame of dark almond eyes
Your gaze met his vulpine yes
The heights of love you enjoyed
While I was left to brood
You recoiled in shame from me
After hints have been thrown at me
His bride enjoys half of him at least
I of you just share your mind
Like handsome Greek heroes
You satisfied your greediness
And I am left with nothing but despair.

Michael forever

April 14, 2010

I know that if by chance you get to read this poem of mine I would be heureuse

Michael forever is a song
Michael forever is an obsession
Michael forever.
The sound of your name is music to my ears and regardless
of how crazy I might appear
I hope you this song of mine hear
Forever I will love you and be your slave
I tried to look for someone else
but the more I try the more I fall in love with you
I have nothing to loose and everything to win
The more I compare you to others the more I appreciate you
Souless people with their heart in mud
your ideals to me become more precious by the day
Michael forever, the shape of your body and your soul are the same
beautiful in frame and when you make those jokes and laugh with your heart
I think you are the finest work of art.
Then I think about myself of how much you don’t see
the beauty and the beast, I might not be your type
you might not like me
but if there’s one good thing of me,
it’s that my love is greater by the day
My love for you is my own reward not expecting anything from you
I am desperate I am crazy, to myself unfair,
I will love you forever.
Michael forever.
You inspired me forever and gave me ideals .
Michael forever
You art like God
Michael forever
Tears running down my face
Michael forever
You are like a prayer
Michael forever
There is no one else
Michael forever
The most beautiful in the world
Michal forever
Every love affair for you abandoned
Michael forever
The perfection of man
Michael forever
I could go on forever
your voice so deep
You treated me badly so why do I still love you?
You initiated me to poetry
Isn’t that good enough for you?
Loneliness, sadness, inadequate,
Michael forever
Love is your name.
I am hopeless cause I will love you forever
Forever crying forever alone dying.
Michael forever.

Feel you

December 21, 2009

I feel you,
I hear you,
I miss you..
Your voice is constantly in my ears
I followed your footsteps
to the threshold of your country
wanting to fall in love and make amends
to you I always tend
I cannot forget you
that’s why I’m wasting words
holding on to memories instead of making a fresh start
I feel evil and irreverent minds penetrating my soul
and violating my world, destroying it repeatedly
metallic birds flying over my head I see from my window
A wall in front materialisation of my frozen feelings
I feel so lonely I wish you were here
sometimes dying would be easier
cause I am already dead inside
I want to fly to you, you who don’t see me
stones, rusted roofs, a lamp light,
grass growing out from the creveces of hateful wall
to think that I thought I compared myself to that blade of grass
trying to creep out from the cement and leave a pure life
I feel like that famous writer amidst his life
experiencing all the hellish horror of the after world
waiting for his love in paradise to appear,
nothing to polish, butter up or embellish,
just a clown playing on the streets of your life
just annoying and disgusting thing,
tell me then, how come you move my world instead,
how come I haven’t moved on to someone else,
being obsessed by the reasons of your refusal,
is it that today I am a different person, have I improved,
would you like me now what you at least be impressed by my courage and adventurousness?
Or rather would you laugh at the mess
which my life has now become,
I loved you then, I love you now and I will lover you forever,
no matter what, my love,
comparing everybody else to you
I will find nobody else and die alone,
I hope one day you will this find out and at least a few tears for me shed.

Time suite III

December 17, 2009

To autodestroy myself
maybe the only way to be fair
to those I have wronged,
in particular you father,
whom I didn’t care
wrapped in evil and foolish pride
for you scorning your child
I cannot from this hide
my heart open wide to you
from heaven give me a sign
that you have forgiven me
for my trespasses
and free me from guilt
and let me live my life
like you always wanted me too

Time (suite)

December 17, 2009

Oh baby you’re too pure
you’re too pure for this wicked world
is that the word you used to repeat
in your thoughts about me
the refrain of love shall that be?
love for me, by you unexpressed
I wish it was by you, cause you’re the b est,
love from you I request
com’on baby we’re two pieces of the same puzzle, can’t you see?
Bealive in me,
as I bealive in you,
tell me why I feel so blue
tell me, who is the woman made up expressely for you?
Beautiful beaches, clean and uncontaminated
in the heart of tradition I visited
castle, ruins, dainty relics and
wild nature, struggled with death and prejudices, all because of you, just because
of one look from you my whole world revolves around you.
now that I-m in need
my thoughts you no longer read
of all this creation you are the seed
please so now listen to m y plead
I shall come back
and come closer to you
live in your land and maybe
in your city yes, probably that’s where I should be,
this would be the beginning of life opposite to death,
the death of my soul
only overcome by that of my father,
the death of decency chez me
chez your horrible company
ruthless dealers, competitive
and agressive, productivity, atrocity..
Atrocity. Atroceous beast eating
monster that sucks the life
out of you, where money reigns
sovreign disregarding my tears and fears, mocking
my simpplicity with fierceness
overtaking me with your satanical osannahs to efficiency
disregarding any humanity
for my despair mocking me
in truth I know, you servile youngsters,
you servants of hell, you are the ones to deserve pity
Escaped from a small town,
endowed with humbleness
to answer to childish scorn
yet the most ruthless,
endowed with a regional treasure hearted friend,
I to this town came.
Or rather, to this city full of expectations too easily gained
and too easily lost
with insults and pessimism
myself I regale, displaying too much of a tale
maybe to make up for all my fairy tales
i have been telling myself, lying on this bed,
waiting for something to happen,
to fall from the skies,
waiting for love, waiting for that job,
I see passing in front of my eyes
all my past lies
of a life unfair to me
but to me more than to other people
close to me,
lovely and caring as a parent could be
maybe it’s my fate.


December 17, 2009

Time, time, time
give me time
I am more than sublime
to expect from you on the borderline
I love you still in your prime
you are more than divine
me, just trying to make up for the waste of time
will you brother spare me a dime?
Fine, I will make up my mind
go away, you’re just a waste of time
please give me more time
a battle racing till the end of time
I am tired of trying
technology, velocity, atrocity
all these big companies,
I now know about your comedy
routine, not just spleen or ideal
something real going on on your mind
purity of mine, reflected in your eyes
me I was just a fool in disguise
not able to compromise,
or was I more wise,
than the others
the only one who bothers
to stay apart from the others
rely on my judjement and
personality defying conventionality
or maybe just unable to cope
with reality?
My foolish courage and honesty
just an act of bravery
do you want to come back home with me?

You said maliciously
twinkling eyes
visions of paradise and hell
this land put on me a spell
I don’t think I’m well
as tears run down my eyes
unable to retain them
unable to retain all
afraid to fall in the well
or river that crosses the city,
I might fall in it,
just let myself slip in the water,
nobody would stop me
on those evil and cynical
sidewalks of pain, I from hurting
won’t restrain I am calling out to you invain
as I slip I feel the cold and
indifference of people walking by
ridiculed every day by the way
I stay and let myself on display
can’t wait to go away this
your eyes too betray.
So I’m a looser, I’m naive
I everybody bealive, you soon
me eager to leave,
I need some lectures by you
I’m in eternal need, give me that
lesson before you or I shall leave,
those prints in me you didn’t leave,
yet not cynical or detached
I get too old before any egg is hatched
life, world, what is it all about
is this just a dream of some other life?
A better one in which I need no rescue or pity
where I’m wise
don’t have to worry for the clock or thighs
Try baby try, time to say goodbye
can I have another try?
I was just so unlucky
to run into this hell, this all in me should ring a bell
Belle, belle est la vie, you never care of nobody,
just willing to be
free and maybe enjoy a little company,
come and try me,
how much more patience do I need?
All over the world there is people
in need, oh you say,
and you say so right, the future
looks so bright, how come
in all this fight, I have the time to ask myself if you are allright?
Darn it I knew it, love is not about receiving love back
but loving unconditionall,
like I love you,
ok love is about give and take
not about everything that is in stake
I about you fancy all the time
I here just came to see
what you mean
you are so good that you belong to a dream,
Dream on, dream on my love
me loving you is not something
you can stop,
nor cold nor flood of any kind of suffering can prevent me to find out
why in this way I feel
I hope to breath the pure air
that escapes from your same lungs
that’s where my heart belongs
enjoy your same scenery, bealifs and thoughts,
yeah, that’s what here me brought
beer I drink like you I think,
from the same cup of madness as you, I think.
Too much global either too pure in thought,
yes, that’s what here me brought,
I think about this a lot,
it’s the only thing I got
yeah pain is all I got
pain is my richness
richness in stupidity
this is all you gave to me
Awareness makes me foolish
in my unconscious decision
to ruin my career,
and from everybody always get it in the rear
it’s my fault I’m too sincere
or is it something in me you admire?
Was that the best thing in me you did see?
Oh baby you,

everybody loves raymond

November 4, 2009

The corconian inside

September 25, 2009

I’ve been living in Ireland for 2 months and a week now. What can I say?Friends ask me how it is living here if I have fun and go out because they barely figured out that I don’t live in a big city….
As a matter of fact, I live in a town whose habitants are less than 3000 people and that I have to ride a bus for an hour and a half to reach cork city which counts 119.518 inhabitants!There are huge shopping centres there and all sorts of shops and I actually got swept away by all the shopping there one weekend there at mahon point…there’s nothing really to see in cork museums are rather kitch, I feel one of my milestones in life was visiting dublin even if I couldn’t visit it properly the one day and a half I visited it and my second milestone when I went to dublin for the coldplay concert.
Tomorrow I’m going to visit Blarney castle after going shopping to cork for a couple of things I can’t get in dunmanway namely 8.9 dvd and a pair of jeans that won’t fall off hehe; plus I need to see what’s
wong with my ipod that is why it’s not turning on after I charge it (sounds like my boyfriend)so I could keep a sort of diary of my irish journy and wether i make or not in staying here cause I came from italy here to work as an aupair and one thing i have found out is that life is very expensive here even if i don’t have to pay a rent and they give me food but because i like my kind of food and buy my own i’m practically with the same amount of money with which i came from sicily that my family had given to me!so apart from learning the irish way of thinking and living and learning to cope with lonliness and little
money I’m not winning my job is extremely difficult and the money is so little….some times I feel a weight on my heart thinking that I won’t see my family for a long time and at the uncertainty of my future as an aupair job isn’t forever and there ‘s no guarantee that i will find another job soon after this one….so I’m torn between the necessity of saving as much money as possible and the curiosity and interest of visiting all the places of interest nearby besides cork and dublin I haven’t been anywhere else so i guess i should visit places that won’t cost me a lot places that i could visit going with the car like clokanilty for example, which is the closest beach and place….killarney is a park a beautiful places with lakes ecc but i guess it would cost me a lot to go by bus i have to ask if i can go with the car there cause it’s an hour away….for the moment it’s blarney castle!I’ll put some photos on the site when I’ll get back.
I can’t help noticing that the Irish feel different from the english but they r not as different as they think and i can say this objectively as an outsider: they are as organised and detached as the english are they are just more outsiders regarding
transportation and technology in fact the have a more rural approach to life for what I can see bit the difference between sicily is huge although my irish friend said that “ireland is the sicily of uk” I am willing to absorb the organisation mentality albeit I suffer for their detached way of being kind-although kinder than italians or sicilians, the lack of passion puzzles me as puzzles me seeing people on the street approaching me with how are you…is it to late for me at the age of 35 to learn to be different?I can’t understand why I can’t find those family pictures of mine that I cherish so much I have been looking for them al day! where r they? god only knows if I need to know where they r in moment like this when I feel so lonely…visiting places and writing is a way to avoid feeling so lonely and worried…I made a friend who invited me over her house for dinner, she’s an ingeneer of my age who is married with kids…this does not prevent me for feeling lonely anyway besides, eating watching tv and getting fat travelling is another thing that I like a lot I’m not makng money anyway with this job!I’ll get back to watch tv at least there’s something funny on tv(friends, got satellite tv). See you when I’m back from blarney castle with the photos.
write to me if you are either irish scottish or english and tell me if u find any differences between these nationalities and why especially on a personal level.

Enthralling viva la vida concert video

September 20, 2009

I was there!

Phoenix park alias oh what a night

September 17, 2009

I am back from the coldplay concert: I have died and gone to heaven:absolutely spectacular! the best entertainment and night ever in my whole life the excitment the fun was extreme..here’s a sample….

Waitinging 4 coldplay concert…

September 12, 2009

monday I will be attending in dublin the coldplay concert: this gives you the idea of what excited and desperate people like me can achieve with modern technolegy…..let me at leat dream will you?


Cob web

September 6, 2009

So tiny and fragile,
I feel like a cobweb,
water sprinkles on me carelessly
I dangle on the wall try to get myself together
I live unnoticed I hang on the walls,
a peripheric life it is
I hope not to be seen by you
or you would kill me….
so I keep hanging around,
aloof I stand better be unnoticed
than to your eyes outstand
it is the price of life to which I hold on too
so dearly yet precariously
patiently I build my pattern
slide down and then up I spider go again
not dangerous but surely disgraceful
not becoming to anyone’s eyes
hoping you not care too much
to cleanse all the impurity of my contradictions
for so often we destroy what we love the most.

In my life

September 6, 2009

In my life I felt as if I were blind
sleeping my days away
just to take all my troubles away
I don’t know what I’m going to do next
I feel so lonely and alone
an anguish seizes me so in the morning when I wake up
Think of my family think about you
who denied your love to me
took my heart and tore it to peaces
out here on my own I get the feeling
I will never be home
so fragile so sensitive,
growing old before ever feeling young
and free just to fly like a bee
from one flower to another
without trouble, enjoy myself
I feel as even air was denied to me
my whole life, I’ve been looking for somebody like you
to fill me with thought and dreams
ideas love and beauty
and adventure too
but I’m not good enough for you
this the story of my life
born to be denied by everybody
I am too good or not good enough,
to dependent or too independent
too needy and fragile
everybody for me to decide they want
all I know that I need love
feel alive and free
and this continously is denied to me
let me decide to live or die
cause if I were independent I would be chased
this neediness traps me so
for I know, the moment I’ll feel free I would be trapped for good.

The most hilarious thing I have ever seen

September 5, 2009

Maximum security poetry

September 5, 2009

Don’t mention the war

September 5, 2009

Love or hate?

September 5, 2009



August 30, 2009

The rain is falling gently here too my friend
you, so fragile and nice to forget
you will be soon over it I’ll bet
me, I don’t want you to forget
don’t feel lonely, cause I feel lonely too
always struggling in life
a broken promise a lost chance
things that hurt like that piercing glance
tomorrow after all is another day
I’ll try to do better than today
to achieve it all I’ll change my way
no passionate romance, no reward
nothing else than his word
so to you my friend I’m clinging on
feeling that between you and me
something is still going on.


August 10, 2009


The Blarney castle

August 2, 2009

Next saturday I’m going here:

Blarney Castle
A castle has existed on this site since 1210. The present-day castle was built nearly 600 years ago by Cormac McCarthy, a great Irish chieftain. The McCarthys were forced to leave their castle twice, the first time by Oliver Cromwell’s cannons, and then again, and this time forever, by an order depriving all the Irish chieftains of their power after the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. Sitting on an 8 m high rock and with its towers reaching for the sky, in its heyday Blarney Castle must have been one of the most impressive structures in Ireland. Even now, as a magnificent ruin, it looks imposing and romantic at the same time. Looking at its windows, you expect its former residents to appear in them any time but, if you should see anyone there, they would probably be tourists on their way to kiss the Blarney Stone.
In fact, this is what a visit to the castle boils down to for many visitors, whose aim is to climb to the top of the spiral stone staircases, lie down on their back upheld by the helpful assistant and kiss the Stone, which is supposed to give you the Gift of the Gab.
The Stone itself was presented to Cormac McCarthy by Robert the Bruce in 1314 in return for his support in the Battle of Bannockburn. It is believed to be half of the magical Stone of Scone, which Scottish Kings were crowned over.
When Queen Elizabeth wanted to make Irish chieftains acknowledge her right to give them title to their own lands, Cormac Teige McCarthy, the Lord of Blarney, repeatedly made use of his eloquence so as to evade the monarch’s order. In the end, the Queen announced that he was giving her ‘a lot of Blarney’. You are supposed to acquire this skill too on kissing the Blarney Stone. Who knows, it might come in handy some day.

To Ireland

July 28, 2009

You have welcomed me in your arms
as a lover does,
green are your hills,
fresh is your breath,

although your skies are grey
may the light shine inside and show me the way
many the misteries to be unveiled,

places to go and sites to see
I want to look at forever your trees

let your rain be mine too
so that it might both wash away our pain

myself I am trying to tame
cause I am tired of struggling invain.

If you all get to heaven

July 21, 2009

MIchael and all his friends(back from the dead alias thriller Jackasshole)

July 9, 2009

There are rumours that Michael jackson is still alive and that he lives in a medieval castle in Hungary….


Viva la vida

July 9, 2009

Feeling hot

July 9, 2009

Drugs don’t work

July 9, 2009

I can’t make you love me

July 9, 2009

Pillars of sand

July 9, 2009

The warning signs
I disregarded in my mind
now I’m out of time

you undertook to fix me
out in the yellow to be free
these ticking clocks that outline
that without you it’s a waste of time

I was an island and you passed me by
sinking more and more tears stream down my face
I look in your direction but you look the other way
from the morning I wake to the moment I sleep
I think about you it’s my fate
It such a perfect day

how long must I wait for it?
how long must I pay for it?

I am lost I am lost
crossed lines I shouldn’t have crossed

the sky could be blue I don’t mind
without you it’s a waste of time
they say to be patient and not worry
but how can I jump across the rainbow
of my mind to meet you in your grey world?

without you I just slide away
everything I know is wrong
everything I do it just comes undone
everything is torn apart
I discovered my world stands
on pillars of salt on pillars of sand

since we are apart
came the hardest part.


July 8, 2009

Walking on sunshine

July 8, 2009

My eyes

July 7, 2009

Did you perceive the glow in my eyes
each time I looked in your eyes?
Did you see the look in my eyes

each time you spoke to me?
did you in my smile the admiration see?

did the star in my eyes shine more than
you did shine?
do you know that I to your love built a shrine?

that everthing you have achived and done
by me would have been sung?

To me nothing else matters
this love that you in me rise
among all you would have been the best

Only Hugh

July 1, 2009

See no evil, hear no evil

July 1, 2009

Home alone

July 1, 2009

I know what it feels like being the youngest…

Could’ve been

July 1, 2009

Another pearl from the 80s…

Time travel

June 29, 2009

You can support Wikipedia by making a tax-deductible donation.Time travel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Time traveller.
Unsolved problems in physics: Is time travel theoretically and practically possible? If so, how can paradoxes such as the grandfather paradox be avoided?Time travel is the concept of moving between different moments in time in a manner analogous to moving between different points in space, either sending objects (or in some cases just information) backwards in time to a moment before the present, or sending objects forward from the present to the future without the need to experience the intervening period (at least not at the normal rate). Some interpretations of time travel also suggest that an attempt to travel backwards in time might take one to a parallel universe whose history would begin to diverge from the traveler’s original history after the moment the traveler arrived in the past.[1] Although time travel has been a common plot device in fiction since the 19th century, and one-way travel into the future is arguably possible given the phenomenon of time dilation based on velocity in the theory of special relativity (exemplified by the twin paradox) as well as gravitational time dilation in the theory of general relativity, it is currently unknown whether the laws of physics would allow backwards time travel. Time travel has not been proven to be impossible or possible. Any technological device, whether fictional or hypothetical, that is used to achieve time travel is commonly known as a time machine.

Contents [hide]
1 Origins of the concept
2 Time travel in theory
2.1 Tourism in time
2.2 General relativity
3 Time travel to the past in physics
3.1 Time travel via faster-than-light travel
3.2 Special spacetime geometries
3.3 Using wormholes
3.4 Other approaches based on general relativity
3.5 Time travel and the anthropic principle
3.6 Experiments carried out
3.6.1 Non-physics based experiments
4 Time travel to the future in physics
4.1 Time dilation
4.2 Time perception
5 Other ideas about time travel from mainstream physics
5.1 The possibility of paradoxes
5.2 Using quantum entanglement
6 Philosophical understandings of time travel
6.1 Presentism vs. eternalism
6.2 The grandfather paradox
6.3 Theory of compossibility
7 Ideas from fiction
7.1 Types of time travel
7.1.1 Immutable timelines
7.1.2 Mutable timelines
7.2 Gradual and instantaneous
7.3 Time travel, or space-time travel?
8 See also
8.1 Speculations
8.2 Claims of time travel
8.3 Fiction, humor
9 References
9.1 Notes
9.2 Bibliography
10 External links

[edit] Origins of the concept
1733 – Samuel Madden’s Memoirs of the Twentieth Century
1771 – Louis-Sébastien Mercier’s L’An 2440, rêve s’il en fût jamais
1838 – Missing One’s Coach: An Anachronism
1843 – Charles Dickens’ A Christmas Carol
1861 – Pierre Boitard’s Paris avant les hommes
1881 – Edward Page Mitchell’s The Clock That Went Backward
1889 – Mark Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court
1895 – H. G. Wells’ The Time Machine
There is no widespread agreement as to which written work should be recognized as the earliest example of a time travel story, since a number of early works feature elements ambiguously suggestive of time travel. For example, Memoirs of the Twentieth Century (1733) by Samuel Madden is mainly a series of letters from English ambassadors in various countries to the British “Lord High Treasurer”, along with a few replies from the British Foreign Office, all purportedly written in 1997 and 1998 and describing the conditions of that era.[2] However, the framing story is that these letters were actual documents given to the narrator by his guardian angel one night in 1728; for this reason, Paul Alkon suggests in his book Origins of Futuristic Fiction that “the first time-traveler in English literature is a guardian angel who returns with state documents from 1998 to the year 1728”,[3] although the book does not explicitly show how the angel obtained these documents. Alkon later qualifies this by writing “It would be stretching our generosity to praise Madden for being the first to show a traveler arriving from the future”, but also says that Madden “deserves recognition as the first to toy with the rich idea of time-travel in the form of an artifact sent backwards from the future to be discovered in the present.”[2]

Louis-Sébastien Mercier’s L’An 2440, rêve s’il en fût jamais (“The Year 2440: A Dream If Ever There Were One”) is a utopian novel set in the year 2440. An extremely popular work (it went through twenty-five editions after its first appearance in 1771), the work describes the adventures of an unnamed man, who, after engaging in a heated discussion with a philosopher friend about the injustices of Paris, falls asleep and finds himself in a Paris of the future. Robert Darnton writes that “despite its self-proclaimed character of fantasy…L’An 2440 demanded to be read as a serious guidebook to the future.”[4]

In the science fiction anthology Far Boundaries (1951), the editor August Derleth identifies the short story “Missing One’s Coach: An Anachronism”, written for the Dublin Literary Magazine by an anonymous author in 1838, as a very early time travel story.[5] In this story, the narrator is waiting under a tree to be picked up by a coach which will take him out of Newcastle, when he suddenly finds himself transported back over a thousand years, where he encounters the Venerable Bede in a monastery, and gives him somewhat ironic explanations of the developments of the coming centuries. It is never entirely clear whether these events actually occurred or were merely a dream—the narrator says that when he initially found a comfortable-looking spot in the roots of the tree, he sat down, “and as my sceptical reader will tell me, nodded and slept”, but then says that he is “resolved not to admit” this explanation. A number of dreamlike elements of the story may suggest otherwise to the reader, such as the fact that none of the members of the monastery seem to be able to see him at first, and the abrupt ending where Bede has been delayed talking to the narrator and so the other monks burst in thinking that some harm has come to him, and suddenly the narrator finds himself back under the tree in the present (August 1837), with his coach having just passed his spot on the road, leaving him stranded in Newcastle for another night.[6]

Charles Dickens’ 1843 book A Christmas Carol is considered by some[7] to be one of the first depictions of time travel, as the main character, Ebenezer Scrooge, is transported to Christmases past, present and yet to come. These might be considered mere visions rather than actual time travel, though, since Scrooge only viewed each time period passively, unable to interact with them.

A clearer example of time travel is found in the popular 1861 book Paris avant les hommes (Paris before Men) by the French botanist and geologist Pierre Boitard, published posthumously. In this story the main character is transported into the prehistoric past by the magic of a “lame demon” (a French pun on Boitard’s name), where he encounters such extinct animals as a Plesiosaur, as well as Boitard’s imagined version of an apelike human ancestor, and is able to actively interact with some of them.[8]

Another clear early example of time travel in fiction is the short story The Clock That Went BackwardPDF (35.7 KB) by Edward Page Mitchell, which appeared in the New York Sun in 1881.

Mark Twain’s A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1889), in which the protagonist finds himself in the time of King Arthur after a fight in which he is hit with a sledge hammer, was another early time travel story which helped bring the concept to a wide audience, and was also one of the first stories to show history being changed by the time traveler’s actions.

The first time travel story to feature time travel by means of a time machine was Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau’s 1887 book El Anacronópete.[9] This idea gained popularity with the H. G. Wells story The Time Machine, published in 1895 (preceded by a less influential story of time travel Wells wrote in 1888, titled The Chronic Argonauts), which also featured a time machine and which is often seen as an inspiration for all later science fiction stories featuring time travel.

Since that time, both science and fiction (see Time travel in fiction) have expanded on the concept of time travel.

[edit] Time travel in theory
Some theories, most notably special and general relativity, suggest that suitable geometries of spacetime, or specific types of motion in space, might allow time travel into the past and future if these geometries or motions are possible.[10] In technical papers, physicists generally avoid the commonplace language of “moving” or “traveling” through time (‘movement’ normally refers only to a change in spatial position as the time coordinate is varied), and instead discuss the possibility of closed timelike curves, which are worldlines that form closed loops in spacetime, allowing objects to return to their own past. There are known to be solutions to the equations of general relativity that describe spacetimes which contain closed timelike curves (such as Gödel spacetime), but the physical plausibility of these solutions is uncertain.

Physicists take for granted that if one were to move away from the Earth at relativistic velocities and return, more time would have passed on Earth than for the traveler, so in this sense it is accepted that relativity allows “travel into the future” (although according to relativity there is no single objective answer to how much time has ‘really’ passed between the departure and the return). On the other hand, many in the scientific community believe that backwards time travel is highly unlikely. Any theory which would allow time travel would require that issues of causality be resolved. The classic example of a problem involving causality is the “grandfather paradox”: what if one were to go back in time and kill one’s own grandfather before one’s father was conceived? But some scientists believe that paradoxes can be avoided, either by appealing to the Novikov self-consistency principle or to the notion of branching parallel universes (see the possibility of paradoxes below).

[edit] Tourism in time
Stephen Hawking once suggested that the absence of tourists from the future constitutes an argument against the existence of time travel—a variant of the Fermi paradox. Of course this would not prove that time travel is physically impossible, since it might be that time travel is physically possible but that it is never in fact developed (or is cautiously never used); and even if it is developed, Hawking notes elsewhere that time travel might only be possible in a region of spacetime that is warped in the right way, and that if we cannot create such a region until the future, then time travelers would not be able to travel back before that date, so “This picture would explain why we haven’t been over run by tourists from the future.”[11] Carl Sagan also once suggested the possibility that time travelers could be here, but are disguising their existence or are not recognized as time travelers. [12]

[edit] General relativity
However, the theory of general relativity does suggest scientific grounds for thinking backwards time travel could be possible in certain unusual scenarios, although arguments from semiclassical gravity suggest that when quantum effects are incorporated into general relativity, these loopholes may be closed.[13] These semiclassical arguments led Hawking to formulate the chronology protection conjecture, suggesting that the fundamental laws of nature prevent time travel,[14] but physicists cannot come to a definite judgment on the issue without a theory of quantum gravity to join quantum mechanics and general relativity into a completely unified theory.[15]

[edit] Time travel to the past in physics
Time travel to the past is theoretically allowed using the following methods:[16]

Space traveling faster than the speed of light
The use of cosmic strings and black holes
Wormholes and Alcubierre ‘warp’ drive

[edit] Time travel via faster-than-light travel
If one were able to move information or matter from one point to another faster than light, then according to special relativity, there would be some inertial frame of reference in which the signal or object was moving backwards in time. This is a consequence of the relativity of simultaneity in special relativity, which says that in some cases different reference frames will disagree on whether two events at different locations happened “at the same time” or not, and they can also disagree on the order of the two events (technically, these disagreements occur when spacetime interval between the events is ‘space-like’, meaning that neither event lies in the future light cone of the other).[17] If one of the two events represents the sending of a signal from one location and the second event represents the reception of the same signal at another location, then as long as the signal is moving at the speed of light or slower, the mathematics of simultaneity ensures that all reference frames agree that the transmission-event happened before the reception-event.[17]

However, in the case of a hypothetical signal moving faster than light, there would always be some frames in which the signal was received before it was sent, so that the signal could be said to have moved backwards in time. And since one of the two fundamental postulates of special relativity says that the laws of physics should work the same way in every inertial frame, then if it is possible for signals to move backwards in time in any one frame, it must be possible in all frames. This means that if observer A sends a signal to observer B which moves FTL (faster than light) in A’s frame but backwards in time in B’s frame, and then B sends a reply which moves FTL in B’s frame but backwards in time in A’s frame, it could work out that A receives the reply before sending the original signal, a clear violation of causality in every frame. An illustration of such a scenario using spacetime diagrams can be found here.

According to special relativity it would take an infinite amount of energy to accelerate a slower-than-light object to the speed of light, and although relativity does not forbid the theoretical possibility of tachyons which move faster than light at all times, when analyzed using quantum field theory it seems that it would not actually be possible to use them to transmit information faster than light,[18] and there is no evidence for their existence.

[edit] Special spacetime geometries
The general theory of relativity extends the special theory to cover gravity, illustrating it in terms of curvature in spacetime caused by mass-energy and the flow of momentum. General relativity describes the universe under a system of field equations, and there exist solutions to these equations that permit what are called “closed time-like curves,” and hence time travel into the past.[10] The first of these was proposed by Kurt Gödel, a solution known as the Gödel metric, but his (and many others’) example requires the universe to have physical characteristics that it does not appear to have.[10] Whether general relativity forbids closed time-like curves for all realistic conditions is unknown.

[edit] Using wormholes

A wormholeMain article: Wormhole
Wormholes are a hypothetical warped spacetime which are also permitted by the Einstein field equations of general relativity,[19] although it would be impossible to travel through a wormhole unless it was what is known as a traversable wormhole.

A proposed time-travel machine using a traversable wormhole would (hypothetically) work in the following way: One end of the wormhole is accelerated to some significant fraction of the speed of light, perhaps with some advanced propulsion system, and then brought back to the point of origin. Alternatively, another way is to take one entrance of the wormhole and move it to within the gravitational field of an object that has higher gravity than the other entrance, and then return it to a position near the other entrance. For both of these methods, time dilation causes the end of the wormhole that has been moved to have aged less than the stationary end, as seen by an external observer; however, time connects differently through the wormhole than outside it, so that synchronized clocks at either end of the wormhole will always remain synchronized as seen by an observer passing through the wormhole, no matter how the two ends move around.[20] This means that an observer entering the accelerated end would exit the stationary end when the stationary end was the same age that the accelerated end had been at the moment before entry; for example, if prior to entering the wormhole the observer noted that a clock at the accelerated end read a date of 2007 while a clock at the stationary end read 2012, then the observer would exit the stationary end when its clock also read 2007, a trip backwards in time as seen by other observers outside. One significant limitation of such a time machine is that it is only possible to go as far back in time as the initial creation of the machine;[21] in essence, it is more of a path through time than it is a device that itself moves through time, and it would not allow the technology itself to be moved backwards in time. This could provide an alternative explanation for Hawking’s observation: a time machine will be built someday, but has not yet been built, so the tourists from the future cannot reach this far back in time.

According to current theories on the nature of wormholes, construction of a traversable wormhole would require the existence of a substance with negative energy (often referred to as “exotic matter”) . More technically, the wormhole spacetime requires a distribution of energy that violates various energy conditions, such as the null energy condition along with the weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.[22] However, it is known that quantum effects can lead to small measurable violations of the null energy condition,[22] and many physicists believe that the required negative energy may actually be possible due to the Casimir effect in quantum physics.[23] Although early calculations suggested a very large amount of negative energy would be required, later calculations showed that the amount of negative energy can be made arbitrarily small.[24]

In 1993, Matt Visser argued that the two mouths of a wormhole with such an induced clock difference could not be brought together without inducing quantum field and gravitational effects that would either make the wormhole collapse or the two mouths repel each other.[25] Because of this, the two mouths could not be brought close enough for causality violation to take place. However, in a 1997 paper, Visser hypothesized that a complex “Roman ring” (named after Tom Roman) configuration of an N number of wormholes arranged in a symmetric polygon could still act as a time machine, although he concludes that this is more likely a flaw in classical quantum gravity theory rather than proof that causality violation is possible.[26]

[edit] Other approaches based on general relativity
Another approach involves a dense spinning cylinder usually referred to as a Tipler cylinder, a GR solution discovered by Willem Jacob van Stockum[27] in 1936 and Kornel Lanczos[28] in 1924, but not recognized as allowing closed timelike curves[29] until an analysis by Frank Tipler[30] in 1974. If a cylinder is infinitely long and spins fast enough about its long axis, then a spaceship flying around the cylinder on a spiral path could travel back in time (or forward, depending on the direction of its spiral). However, the density and speed required is so great that ordinary matter is not strong enough to construct it. A similar device might be built from a cosmic string, but none are known to exist, and it does not seem to be possible to create a new cosmic string.

Physicist Robert Forward noted that a naïve application of general relativity to quantum mechanics suggests another way to build a time machine. A heavy atomic nucleus in a strong magnetic field would elongate into a cylinder, whose density and “spin” are enough to build a time machine. Gamma rays projected at it might allow information (not matter) to be sent back in time; however, he pointed out that until we have a single theory combining relativity and quantum mechanics, we will have no idea whether such speculations are nonsense.[citation needed]

A more fundamental objection to time travel schemes based on rotating cylinders or cosmic strings has been put forward by Stephen Hawking, who proved a theorem showing that according to general relativity it is impossible to build a time machine of a special type (a “time machine with the compactly generated Cauchy horizon”) in a region where the weak energy condition is satisfied, meaning that the region contains no matter with negative energy density (exotic matter). Solutions such as Tipler’s assume cylinders of infinite length, which are easier to analyze mathematically, and although Tipler suggested that a finite cylinder might produce closed timelike curves if the rotation rate were fast enough,[31] he did not prove this. But Hawking points out that because of his theorem, “it can’t be done with positive energy density everywhere! I can prove that to build a finite time machine, you need negative energy.”[32] This result comes from Hawking’s 1992 paper on the chronology protection conjecture, where he examines “the case that the causality violations appear in a finite region of spacetime without curvature singularities” and proves that “[t]here will be a Cauchy horizon that is compactly generated and that in general contains one or more closed null geodesics which will be incomplete. One can define geometrical quantities that measure the Lorentz boost and area increase on going round these closed null geodesics. If the causality violation developed from a noncompact initial surface, the averaged weak energy condition must be violated on the Cauchy horizon.”[33] However, this theorem does not rule out the possibility of time travel 1) by means of time machines with the non-compactly generated Cauchy horizons (such as the Deutsch-Politzer time machine) and 2) in regions which contain exotic matter (which would be necessary for traversable wormholes or the Alcubierre drive). Because the theorem is based on general relativity, it is also conceivable a future theory of quantum gravity which replaced general relativity would allow time travel even without exotic matter (though it is also possible such a theory would place even more restrictions on time travel, or rule it out completely).

[edit] Time travel and the anthropic principle
It has been suggested by physicists such as Max Tegmark that the absence of time travel and the existence of causality might be due to the anthropic principle. The argument is that a universe which allows for time travel and closed time-like loops is one in which intelligence could not evolve because it would be impossible for a being to sort events into a past and future or to make predictions or comprehend the world around them (at least, not if the time travel occurs in such a way that it disrupts that evolutionary process).[citation needed]

[edit] Experiments carried out
Certain experiments carried out during the last ten years give the impression of reversed causality but are interpreted in a different way by the scientific community. For example, in the delayed choice quantum eraser experiment performed by Marlan Scully, pairs of entangled photons are divided into “signal photons” and “idler photons”, with the signal photons emerging from one of two locations and their position later measured as in the double slit experiment, and depending on how the idler photon is measured, the experimenter can either learn which of the two locations the signal photon emerged from or “erase” that information. Even though the signal photons can be measured before the choice has been made about the idler photons, the choice seems to retroactively determine whether or not an interference pattern is observed when one correlates measurements of idler photons to the corresponding signal photons. However, since interference can only be observed after the idler photons are measured and they are correlated with the signal photons, there is no way for experimenters to tell what choice will be made in advance just by looking at the signal photons, and under most interpretations of quantum mechanics the results can be explained in a way that does not violate causality.

The experiment of Lijun Wang might also give the appearance of causality violation since it made it possible to send packages of waves through a bulb of caesium gas in such a way that the package appeared to exit the bulb 62 nanoseconds before its entry. But a wave package is not a single well-defined object but rather a sum of multiple waves of different frequencies (see Fourier analysis), and the package can appear to move faster than light or even backwards in time even if none of the pure waves in the sum do so. This effect cannot be used to send any matter, energy, or information backwards in time, so this experiment is understood not to violate causality either.

The physicists Günter Nimtz and Alfons Stahlhofen, of the University of Koblenz, claim to have violated Einstein’s theory of relativity by transmitting photons faster than the speed of light. They say they have conducted an experiment in which microwave photons – energetic packets of light – traveled “instantaneously” between a pair of prisms that had been moved up to 3 ft (0.91 m) apart, using a phenomenon known as quantum tunneling. Nimtz told New Scientist magazine: “For the time being, this is the only violation of special relativity that I know of.” However, other physicists say that this phenomenon does not allow information to be transmitted faster than light. Aephraim Steinberg, a quantum optics expert at the University of Toronto, Canada, uses the analogy of a train traveling from Chicago to New York, but dropping off train cars at each station along the way, so that the center of the train moves forward at each stop; in this way, the center of the train exceeds the speed of any of the individual cars.[34]

Some physicists have attempted to perform experiments which would show genuine causality violations, but so far without success. The Space-time Twisting by Light (STL) experiment run by physicist Ronald Mallett is attempting to observe a violation of causality when a neutron is passed through a circle made up of a laser whose path has been twisted by passing it through a photonic crystal. Mallett has some physical arguments which suggest that closed timelike curves would become possible through the center of a laser which has been twisted into a loop. However, other physicists dispute his arguments (see objections).

[edit] Non-physics based experiments
Several experiments have been carried out to try to entice future humans, who might invent time travel technology, to come back and demonstrate it to people of the present time. Events such as Perth’s Destination Day (2005) or MIT’s Time Traveler Convention heavily publicized permanent “advertisements” of a meeting time and place for future time travelers to meet. Back in 1982, a group in Baltimore, MD., identifying itself as the Krononauts, hosted an event of this type welcoming Visitors from the Futures.[35][36][37][38] These experiments only stood the possibility of generating a positive result demonstrating the existence of time travel, but have failed so far—no time travelers are known to have attended either event. It is theoretically possible that future humans have traveled back in time, but have traveled back to the meeting time and place in a parallel universe.[39] Another factor is that for all the time travel devices considered under current physics (such as those that operate using wormholes), it is impossible to travel back to before the time machine was actually made.[40][41]

[edit] Time travel to the future in physics

Twin paradox diagramThere are various ways in which a person could “travel into the future” in a limited sense: the person could set things up so that in a small amount of his own subjective time, a large amount of subjective time has passed for other people on Earth. For example, an observer might take a trip away from the Earth and back at relativistic velocities, with the trip only lasting a few years according to the observer’s own clocks, and return to find that thousands of years had passed on Earth. It should be noted, though, that according to relativity there is no objective answer to the question of how much time “really” passed during the trip; it would be equally valid to say that the trip had lasted only a few years or that the trip had lasted thousands of years, depending on your choice of reference frame.

This form of “travel into the future” is theoretically allowed using the following methods:[16]

Using time dilation under the Theory of Special Relativity, for instance:
Traveling at almost the speed of light to a distant star, then slowing down, turning around, and traveling at almost the speed of light back to Earth[42] (see the Twin paradox)
Using time dilation under the Theory of General Relativity, for instance:
Residing inside of a hollow, high-mass object;
Residing just outside of the event horizon of a black hole, or on the surface of a larger-than-earth mass object.
Additionally, it might be possible to see the distant future of the Earth using methods which do not involve relativity at all, although it is even more debatable whether these should be deemed a form of “time travel”:

Suspended animation

[edit] Time dilation

Transversal Time dilationMain article: Time dilation
Time dilation is permitted by Albert Einstein’s special and general theories of relativity. These theories state that, relative to a given observer, time passes more slowly for bodies moving quickly relative to that observer, or bodies that are deeper within a gravity well.[43] For example, a clock which is moving relative to the observer will be measured to run slow in that observer’s rest frame; as a clock approaches the speed of light it will almost slow to a stop, although it can never quite reach light speed so it will never completely stop. For two clocks moving inertially (not accelerating) relative to one another, this effect is reciprocal, with each clock measuring the other to be ticking slower. However, the symmetry is broken if one clock accelerates, as in the twin paradox where one twin stays on Earth while the other travels into space, turns around (which involves acceleration), and returns—in this case both agree the traveling twin has aged less. General relativity states that time dilation effects also occur if one clock is deeper in a gravity well than the other, with the clock deeper in the well ticking more slowly; this effect must be taken into account when calibrating the clocks on the satellites of the Global Positioning System, and it could lead to significant differences in rates of aging for observers at different distances from a black hole.

It has been calculated that, under general relativity, a person could travel forward in time at a rate four times that of distant observers by residing inside a spherical shell with a diameter of 5 meters and the mass of Jupiter.[16] For such a person, every one second of their “personal” time would correspond to four seconds for distant observers. Of course, squeezing the mass of a large planet into such a structure is not expected to be within our technological capabilities in the near future.

[edit] Time perception
Time perception can be apparently sped up for living organisms through hibernation, where the body temperature and metabolic rate of the creature is reduced. A more extreme version of this is suspended animation, where the rates of chemical processes in the subject would be severely reduced.

Time dilation and suspended animation only allow “travel” to the future, never the past, so they do not violate causality, and arguably should not be considered time travel. However time dilation should be considered an actual form of time travel, since the person does actually travel into the future at a faster pace than normal, whereas with suspended animation this is not the case.

[edit] Other ideas about time travel from mainstream physics

[edit] The possibility of paradoxes
The Novikov self-consistency principle and recent calculations by Kip S. Thorne[citation needed] indicate that simple masses passing through time travel wormholes could never engender paradoxes—there are no initial conditions that lead to paradox once time travel is introduced. If his results can be generalized, they would suggest, curiously, that none of the supposed paradoxes formulated in time travel stories can actually be formulated at a precise physical level: that is, that any situation you can set up in a time travel story turns out to permit many consistent solutions. The circumstances might, however, turn out to be almost unbelievably strange.[citation needed]

Parallel universes might provide a way out of paradoxes. Everett’s many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests that all possible quantum events can occur in mutually exclusive histories.[44] These alternate, or parallel, histories would form a branching tree symbolizing all possible outcomes of any interaction. If all possibilities exist, any paradoxes could be explained by having the paradoxical events happening in a different universe. This concept is most often used in science-fiction, but some physicists such as David Deutsch have suggested that if time travel is possible and the many-worlds interpretation is correct, then a time traveler should indeed end up in a different history than the one he started from.[1] On the other hand, Stephen Hawking has argued that even if the many-worlds interpretation is correct, we should expect each time traveler to experience a single self-consistent timeline, so that time travelers remain within their own world rather than traveling to a different one.[11]

Daniel Greenberger and Karl Svozil proposed that quantum theory gives a model for time travel without paradoxes.[45][46] In quantum theory observation causes possible states to ‘collapse’ into one measured state; hence, the past observed from the present is deterministic (it has only one possible state), but the present observed from the past has many possible states until our actions cause it to collapse into one state. Our actions will then be seen to have been inevitable.

[edit] Using quantum entanglement
Quantum-mechanical phenomena such as quantum teleportation, the EPR paradox, or quantum entanglement might appear to create a mechanism that allows for faster-than-light (FTL) communication or time travel, and in fact some interpretations of quantum mechanics such as the Bohm interpretation presume that some information is being exchanged between particles instantaneously in order to maintain correlations between particles.[47] This effect was referred to as “spooky action at a distance” by Einstein.

Nevertheless, the fact that causality is preserved in quantum mechanics is a rigorous result in modern quantum field theories, and therefore modern theories do not allow for time travel or FTL communication. In any specific instance where FTL has been claimed, more detailed analysis has proven that to get a signal, some form of classical communication must also be used.[citation needed] The no-communication theorem also gives a general proof that quantum entanglement cannot be used to transmit information faster than classical signals. The fact that these quantum phenomena apparently do not allow FTL time travel is often overlooked in popular press coverage of quantum teleportation experiments.[citation needed] How the rules of quantum mechanics work to preserve causality is an active area of research.[citation needed]

[edit] Philosophical understandings of time travel
Theories of time travel are riddled with questions about causality and paradoxes. Compared to other fundamental concepts in modern physics, time is still not understood very well. Philosophers have been theorizing about the nature of time since the era of the ancient Greek philosophers and earlier (See the main article on Philosophy of space and time). Some philosophers and physicists who study the nature of time also study the possibility of time travel and its logical implications. The probability of paradoxes and their possible solutions are often considered.

For more information on the philosophical considerations of time travel, consult the work of David Lewis or Ted Sider. For more information on physics-related theories of time travel, consider the work of Kurt Gödel (especially his theorized universe) and Lawrence Sklar.

[edit] Presentism vs. eternalism
The relativity of simultaneity in modern physics favors the philosophical view known as eternalism or four dimensionalism (Sider, 2001), in which physical objects are either temporally extended space-time worms, or space-time worm stages, and this view would be favored further by the possibility of time travel (Sider, 2001). Eternalism, also sometimes known as “block universe theory”, builds on a standard method of modeling time as a dimension in physics, to give time a similar ontology to that of space (Sider, 2001). This would mean that time is just another dimension, that future events are “already there”, and that there is no objective flow of time. This view is disputed by Tim Maudlin in his The Metaphysics Within Physics.

Presentism is a school of philosophy that holds that neither the future nor the past exist, and there are no non-present objects. In this view, time travel is impossible because there is no future or past to travel to. However, some 21st century presentists have argued that although past and future objects do not exist, there can still be definite truths about past and future events, and thus it is possible that a future truth about a time traveler deciding to appear in the present could explain the time traveler’s actual existence in the present.[48][49]

[edit] The grandfather paradox
Main article: Grandfather paradox
One subject often brought up in philosophical discussion of time is the idea that, if one were to go back in time, paradoxes could ensue if the time traveler were to change things. The best examples of this are the grandfather paradox and the idea of autoinfanticide. The grandfather paradox is a hypothetical situation in which a time traveler goes back in time and attempts to kill his grandfather at a time before his grandfather met his grandmother. If he did so, then his father never would have been born, and neither would the time traveler himself, in which case the time traveler never would have gone back in time to kill his grandfather.

Autoinfanticide works the same way, where a traveler goes back and attempts to kill himself as an infant. If he were to do so, he never would have grown up to go back in time to kill himself as an infant.

This discussion is important to the philosophy of time travel because philosophers question whether these paradoxes make time travel impossible. Some philosophers answer the paradoxes by arguing that it might be the case that backwards time travel could be possible but that it would be impossible to actually change the past in any way,[50] an idea similar to the proposed Novikov self-consistency principle in physics.

[edit] Theory of compossibility
David Lewis’ analysis of compossibility and the implications of changing the past is meant to account for the possibilities of time travel in a one-dimensional conception of time without creating logical paradoxes. Consider Lewis’ example of Tim. Tim hates his grandfather and would like nothing more than to kill him. The only problem for Tim is that his grandfather died years ago. Tim wants so badly to kill his grandfather himself that he constructs a time machine to travel back to 1955 when his grandfather was young and kill him then. Assuming that Tim can travel to a time when his grandfather is still alive, the question must then be raised; Can Tim kill his grandfather?

For Lewis, the answer lies within the context of the usage of the word “can”. Lewis explains that the word “can” must be viewed against the context of pertinent facts relating to the situation. Suppose that Tim has a rifle, years of rifle training, a straight shot on a clear day and no outside force to restrain Tim’s trigger finger. Can Tim shoot his grandfather? Considering these facts, it would appear that Tim can in fact kill his grandfather. In other words, all of the contextual facts are compossible with Tim killing his grandfather. However, when reflecting on the compossibility of a given situation, we must gather the most inclusive set of facts that we are able to.

Consider now the fact that Tim’s grandfather died in 1993 and not in 1955. This new fact about Tim’s situation reveals that him killing his grandfather is not compossible with the current set of facts. Tim cannot kill his grandfather because his grandfather died in 1993 and not when he was young. Thus, Lewis concludes, the statements “Tim doesn’t but can, because he has what it takes,” and, “Tim doesn’t, and can’t, because it is logically impossible to change the past,” are not contradictions, they are both true given the relevant set of facts. The usage of the word “can” is equivocal: he “can” and “can not” under different relevant facts. So what must happen to Tim as he takes aim? Lewis believes that his gun will jam, a bird will fly in the way, or Tim simply slips on a banana peel. Either way, there will be some logical force of the universe that will prevent Tim every time from killing his grandfather.

[edit] Ideas from fiction
Further information: Time travel in fiction

[edit] Types of time travel
Time travel themes in science fiction and the media can generally be grouped into two main types and a third, less common type (based on effect—methods are extremely varied and numerous), each of which is further subdivided. These classifications do not address the issue of time travel itself, i.e. how to travel through time, but instead call to attention differing rules of the time line.

1. The time line is consistent and can never be changed.
1.1 The Novikov self-consistency principle applies (named after Dr. Igor Dmitrievich Novikov, Professor of Astrophysics at Copenhagen University). The principle states that the timeline is totally fixed, and any actions taken by a time traveler were part of history all along, so it is impossible for the time traveler to “change” history in any way. The time traveler’s actions may be the cause of events in their own past though, which leads to the potential for circular causation and the predestination paradox; for examples of circular causation, see Robert A. Heinlein’s story “By His Bootstraps”. The Novikov self-consistency principle proposes that the local laws of physics in a region of spacetime containing time travelers cannot be any different from the local laws of physics in any other region of spacetime, which distinguishes this idea from 1.2 below.[51]
1.2 One does not have full control of the time travel, due to some new physical laws that take effect at the time travel. One example of this is in Michael Moorcock’s The Dancers at the End of Time in which time has tendency to reject time travelers who travel to the past to change it by pulling them back to the point from when they came.
1.3 Any event that appears to have changed a time line has instead created a new one. It has been suggested that travel to the past would create an entire new parallel universe where the traveler would be free from paradoxes since he/she is not from that universe.[52]
1.3.1 Such an event can be the life line existence of a human (or other intelligence) such that manipulation of history ends up with there being more than one of the same individual, sometimes called time clones.
1.3.2 The new time line might be a copy of the old one with changes caused by the time traveler. For example there is the Accumulative Audience Paradox where multitudes of time traveler tourists wish to attend some event in the life of Jesus or some other historical figure, where history tells us there were no such multitudes. Each tourist arrives in a reality that is a copy of the original with the added people, and no way for the tourist to travel back to the original time line.
2. The time line is flexible and is subject to change.
2.1 The time line is extremely change resistant and requires great effort to change it. Small changes will only alter the immediate future and events will conspire to maintain constant events in the far future; only large changes will alter events in the distant future. (Example: The Saga of Darren Shan, where major events in the past cannot be changed, but minor events can be affected. This is explained as if you went back in time and killed Hitler, another Nazi would take his place and commit his same actions.)
2.2 The time line is easily changed. (Example: Doctor Who, where the time line is fluid and changes often naturally; even changes to the traveler’s own timeline are possible, though it is suggested such an act would destroy most of the universe.)
3. The time line is consistent, but only insofar as its consistency can be verified.
3.1 The Novikov self-consistency principle applies, but if and only if it is verified to apply. Attempts to travel into the past to change events are possible, but provided that:
-They do not interfere with the occurrence of such an attempt in the present (as would be the case in the Grandfather Paradox), and
-The change is never ultimately verified to occur by the traveler (e.g. there is no possibility of returning to the present to witness the change).
There are also numerous science fiction stories allegedly about time travel that are not internally consistent, where the traveler makes all kinds of changes to some historical time, but we do not get to see any consequences of this in our present day.[citation needed]

[edit] Immutable timelines
Time travel in a type 1 universe does not allow any paradoxes, although in 1.3, events can appear to be paradoxical.

In 1.1, the Novikov self-consistency principle asserts that the existence of a method of time travel constrains events to remain self-consistent (i.e. no paradoxes). This will cause any attempt to violate such consistency to fail, even if extremely improbable events are required.

Example: You have a device that can send a single bit of information back to itself at a precise moment in time. You receive a bit at 10:00:00 p.m., then no bits for thirty seconds after that. If you send a bit back to 10:00:00 p.m., everything works fine. However, if you try to send a bit to 10:00:15 p.m. (a time at which no bit was received), your transmitter will mysteriously fail. Or your dog will distract you for fifteen seconds. Or your transmitter will appear to work, but as it turns out your receiver failed at exactly 10:00:15 p.m., etc. Examples of this kind of universe are found in Timemaster, a novel by Dr. Robert Forward, the Twilight Zone episode “No Time Like the Past”, and the 1980 Jeannot Szwarc film Somewhere In Time (based on Richard Matheson’s novel Bid Time Return).
In 1.2, time travel is constrained to prevent paradox. If one attempts to make a paradox, one undergoes involuntary or uncontrolled time travel. In the time-travel stories of Connie Willis, time travelers encounter “slippage” which prevents them from either reaching the intended time or translates them a sufficient distance from their destination at the intended time, as to prevent any paradox from occurring.

Example: A man who travels into the past with intentions to kill Hitler finds himself on a Montana farm in late April 1945.
An example which could conceivably fall into either 1.1 or 1.2 can be seen in book and film versions of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Harry went back in time with Hermione to change history. As they do so it becomes apparent that they are simply performing actions that were previously seen in the story, although neither the characters nor the reader were aware of the causes of those actions at the time. This is another example of the predestination paradox. It is arguable, however, that the mechanics of time travel actually prevented any paradoxes, firstly, by preventing them from realizing a priori that time travel was occurring and secondly, by enabling them to recall the precise action to take at the precise time and keep history consistent.

In 1.3, any event that appears to have caused a paradox has instead created a new time line. The old time line remains unchanged, with the time traveler or information sent simply having vanished, never to return. A difficulty with this explanation, however, is that conservation of mass-energy would be violated for the origin timeline and the destination timeline. A possible solution to this is to have the mechanics of time travel require that mass-energy be exchanged in precise balance between past and future at the moment of travel, or to simply expand the scope of the conservation law to encompass all timelines. Some examples of this kind of time travel can be found in David Gerrold’s book The Man Who Folded Himself and The Time Ships by Stephen Baxter, plus several episodes of the TV show Star Trek: The Next Generation.

[edit] Mutable timelines
Time travel in a Type 2 universe is much more complex. The biggest problem is how to explain changes in the past. One method of explanation is that once the past changes, so too do the memories of all observers. This would mean that no observer would ever observe the changing of the past (because they will not remember changing the past). This would make it hard to tell whether you are in a Type 1 universe or a Type 2 universe. You could, however, infer such information by knowing if a) communication with the past were possible or b) it appeared that the time line had never been changed as a result of an action someone remembers taking, although evidence exists that other people are changing their time lines fairly often.

An example of this kind of universe is presented in Thrice Upon a Time, a novel by James P. Hogan. The Back to the Future trilogy films also seem to feature a single mutable timeline (see the Back to the Future FAQ for details on how the writers imagined time travel worked in the movies’ world). By contrast, the short story “Brooklyn Project” by William Tenn provides a sketch of life in a Type 2 world where no one even notices as the timeline changes repeatedly.
In type 2.1, attempts are being made at changing the timeline, however, all that is accomplished in the first tries is that the method in which decisive events occur is changed; final conclusions in the bigger scheme cannot be brought to a different outcome.

As an example, the movie Deja Vu depicts a paper note sent to the past with vital information to prevent a terrorist attack. However, the vital information results in the killing of an ATF agent, but does not prevent the terrorist attack; the very same agent died in the previous version of the timeline as well, albeit under different circumstances. Finally, the timeline is changed by sending a human into the past, arguably a “stronger” measure than simply sending back a paper note, which results in preventing both a murder and the terrorist attack. As in the Back to the Future movie trilogy, there seems to be a “ripple effect” as changes from the past “propagate” into the present, and people in the present have altered memory of events that occurred after the changes made to the timeline.
The science fiction writer Larry Niven suggests in his essay “The Theory and Practice of Time Travel” that in a type 2.1 universe, the most efficient way for the universe to “correct” a change is for time travel to never be discovered, and that in a type 2.2 universe, the very large (or infinite) number of time travelers from the endless future will cause the timeline to change wildly until it reaches a history in which time travel is never discovered. However, many other “stable” situations might also exist in which time travel occurs but no paradoxes are created; if the changeable-timeline universe finds itself in such a state no further changes will occur, and to the inhabitants of the universe it will appear identical to the type 1.1 scenario.[citation needed] This is sometimes referred to as the “Time Dilution Effect”.

Few if any physicists or philosophers have taken seriously the possibility of “changing” the past except in the case of multiple universes, and in fact many have argued that this idea is logically incoherent,[50] so the mutable timeline idea is rarely considered outside of science fiction.

Also, deciding whether a given universe is of Type 2.1 or 2.2 can not be done objectively, as the categorization of timeline-invasive measures as “strong” or “weak” is arbitrary, and up to interpretation: An observer can disagree about a measure being “weak”, and might, in the lack of context, argue instead that simply a mishap occurred which then led to no effective change.

An example would be the paper note sent back to the past in the film Deja Vu, as described above. Was it a “too weak” change, or was it just a local-time alteration which had no extended effect on the larger timeline? As the universe in Deja Vu seems not entirely immune to paradoxes (some arguably minute paradoxes do occur), both versions seem to be equally possible.

[edit] Gradual and instantaneous
In literature, there are two methods of time travel:

1. The most commonly used method of time travel in science fiction is the instantaneous movement from one point in time to another, like using the controls on a CD player to skip to a previous or next song, though in most cases, there is a machine of some sort, and some energy expended in order to make this happen (like the time-traveling De Lorean in Back to the Future or the phone booth that traveled through the “circuits of history” in Bill and Ted’s Excellent Adventure). In some cases, there is not even the beginning of a scientific explanation for this kind of time travel; it’s popular probably because it is more spectacular and makes time travel easier. The “Universal Remote” used by Adam Sandler in the movie Click works in the same manner, although only in one direction, the future. While his character Michael Newman can travel back to a previous point it is merely a playback with which he cannot interact.

2. In The Time Machine, H.G. Wells explains that we are moving through time with a constant speed. Time travel then is, in Wells’ words, “stopping or accelerating one’s drift along the time-dimension, or even turning about and traveling the other way.” To expand on the audio playback analogy used above, this would be like rewinding or fast forwarding an analogue audio cassette and playing the tape at a chosen point. This method of gradual time travel is not as popular in modern science fiction. Perhaps the oldest example of this method of time travel is in Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass (1871): the White Queen is living backwards, hence her memory is working both ways. Her kind of time travel is uncontrolled: she moves through time with a constant speed of -1 and she cannot change it. T.H. White, in the first part of his Arthurian novel The Once and Future King, The Sword in the Stone (1938) used the same idea: the wizard Merlyn lives backward in time, because he was born “at the wrong end of time” and has to live backwards from the front. “Some people call it having second sight”, he says.

[edit] Time travel, or space-time travel?
An objection that is sometimes raised against the concept of time machines in science fiction is that they ignore the motion of the Earth between the date the time machine departs and the date it returns. The idea that a traveler can go into a machine that sends him or her to 1865 and step out into the exact same spot on Earth might be said to ignore the issue that Earth is moving through space around the Sun, which is moving in the galaxy, and so on, so that advocates of this argument imagine that “realistically” the time machine should actually reappear in space far away from the Earth’s position at that date. However, the theory of relativity rejects the idea of absolute time and space; in relativity there can be no universal truth about the spatial distance between events which occurred at different times[53] (such as an event on Earth today and an event on Earth in 1865), and thus no objective truth about which point in space at one time is at the “same position” that the Earth was at another time. In the theory of special relativity, which deals with situations where gravity is negligible, the laws of physics work the same way in every inertial frame of reference and therefore no frame’s perspective is physically better than any other frame’s, and different frames disagree about whether two events at different times happened at the “same position” or “different positions”. In the theory of general relativity, which incorporates the effects of gravity, all coordinate systems are on equal footing because of a feature known as “diffeomorphism invariance”[54].

Nevertheless, the idea that the Earth moves away from the time traveler when he takes a trip through time has been used in a few science fiction stories, such as the 2000 AD comic Strontium Dog, in which Johnny Alpha uses “Time Bombs” to propel an enemy several seconds into the future, during which time the movement of the Earth causes the unfortunate victim to re-appear in space. Other science fiction stories try to anticipate this objection and offer a rationale for the fact that the traveler remains on Earth, such as the 1957 Robert Heinlein novel The Door into Summer where Heinlein essentially handwaved the issue with a single sentence: “You stay on the world line you were on.” In his 1980 novel The Number of the Beast a “continua device” allows the protagonists to dial in the six (not four!) co-ordinates of space and time and it instantly moves them there—without explaining how such a device might work.

In Clifford Simak’s 1950s short story “Mastodonia” (later broadcast on the X Minus One radio anthology show, and then significantly re-written into a longer novel of the same name) the protagonists are aware of the possibility of changes in ground level while traveling back in time to the same geographical coordinates and mount their time machine in a helicopter so as to not materialize underground. When the helicopter is damaged beyond repair while in the past, they then build a mound of rocks from which to launch their return to the present.

The television series Seven Days also dealt with this problem; when the chrononaut would be ‘rewinding’, he would also be propelling himself backwards around the Earth’s orbit, with the intention of landing at some chosen spatial location, though seldom hitting the mark precisely.[citation needed] In Piers Anthony’s Bearing an Hourglass, the potent Hourglass of the Incarnation of Time naturally moves the Incarnation in space according to the numerous movements of the globe through the solar system, the solar system through the galaxy, etc.; but by carefully negating some of the movements he can also travel in space within the limits of the planet. The television series Doctor Who cleverly avoided this issue by establishing early on in the series that the Doctor’s TARDIS is able to move about in space in addition to traveling in time.

[edit] See also
Travel time
[edit] Speculations
Grandfather paradox
Ontological paradox
Predestination paradox
Temporal paradox
Tipler Cylinder
Ronald Mallett
[edit] Claims of time travel
Philadelphia Experiment
Billy Meier
Darren Daulton
John Titor
Moberly-Jourdain incident
Montauk Project
Time slip
[edit] Fiction, humor
Andrew Carlssin
Time travel in fiction
Time loop

[edit] References

[edit] Notes
^ a b Deutsch, David (1991). “Quantum mechanics near closed timelike curves”. Physical Review D 44: 3197–3217. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.44.3197.
^ a b Alkon, Paul K. (1987). Origins of Futuristic Fiction. The University of Georgia Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 0-8203-0932-X.
^ Alkon, Paul K. (1987). Origins of Futuristic Fiction. The University of Georgia Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-8203-0932-X.
^ Robert Darnton, The Forbidden Best-Sellers of Pre-Revolutionary France (New York: W.W. Norton, 1996), 120.
^ Derleth, August (1951). Far Boundaries. Pellegrini & Cudahy. p. 3.
^ Derleth, August (1951). Far Boundaries. Pellegrini & Cudahy. pp. 11–38.
^ Flynn, John L.. “Time Travel Literature”. http://www.towson.edu/~flynn/timetv.html. Retrieved on 2006-10-28.
^ Rudwick, Martin J. S. (1992). Scenes From Deep Time. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 166–169. ISBN 0-226-73105-7.
^ Uribe, Augusto (June 1999). “The First Time Machine: Enrique Gaspar’s Anacronópete”. The New York Review of Science Fiction Vol. 11, No. 10 (130): 12.
^ a b c Thorne, Kip S. (1994). Black Holes and Time Warps. W. W. Norton. pp. 499. ISBN 0-393-31276-3.
^ a b Hawking, Steven. “Space and Time Warps” (html). http://www.hawking.org.uk/lectures/warps3.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-20.
^ NOVA Online – Sagan on Time Travel
^ http://arxiv.org/pdf/gr-qc/0204022
^ Hawking, Stephen (1992). “Chronology protection conjecture”. Physical Review D 46: 603. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.46.603. http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRD/v46/p603.
^ Hawking, Stephen; Kip Thorne, Igor Novikov, Timothy Ferris, Alan Lightman (2002). The Future of Spacetime. W. W. Norton. pp. 150. ISBN 0-393-02022-3.
^ a b c Gott, J. Richard (2002). Time Travel in Einstein’s Universe. p.33-130
^ a b Jarrell, Mark. “The Special Theory of Relativity” (PDF). 7-11. http://www.physics.uc.edu/~jarrell/COURSES/ELECTRODYNAMICS/Chap11/chap11.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
^ Chase, Scott I.. “Tachyons entry from Usenet Physics FAQ”. http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/ParticleAndNuclear/tachyons.html. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
^ Visser, Matt (1996). Lorentzian Wormholes. Springer-Verlag. pp. 100. ISBN 1-56396-653-0.
^ Thorne, Kip S. (1994). Black Holes and Time Warps. W. W. Norton. pp. 502. ISBN 0-393-31276-3.
^ Thorne, Kip S. (1994). Black Holes and Time Warps. W. W. Norton. pp. 504. ISBN 0-393-31276-3.
^ a b Visser, Matt (1996). Lorentzian Wormholes. Springer-Verlag. pp. 101. ISBN 1-56396-653-0.
^ Cramer, John G.. “NASA Goes FTL Part 1: Wormhole Physics”. http://www.npl.washington.edu/av/altvw69.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
^ Visser, Matt; Sayan Kar, Naresh Dadhich (2003). “Traversable wormholes with arbitrarily small energy condition violations”. Physical Review Letters 90: 201102.1–201102.4. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.201102. arΧiv:gr-qc/0301003
^ Visser, Matt (1993). “From wormhole to time machine: Comments on Hawking’s Chronology Protection Conjecture”. Physical Review D 47: 554–565. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.47.554. arΧiv:hep-th/9202090
^ Visser, Matt (1997). “Traversable wormholes: the Roman ring”. Physical Review D 55: 5212–5214. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.55.5212. arΧiv:gr-qc/9702043
^ van Stockum, Willem Jacob (1936). “The Gravitational Field of a Distribution of Particles Rotating about an Axis of Symmetry”. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. http://www-lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/history/stockum/Proc_R_Soc_Edinb_57_135_1937.jpg.
^ Lanczos, Kornel (1924, republished in 1997). “On a Stationary Cosmology in the Sense of Einsteins Theory of Gravitation”. General Relativity and Gravitation (Springland Netherlands) 29 (3): 363–399. doi:10.1023/A:1010277120072.
^ Earman, John (1995). Bangs, Crunches, Whimpers, and Shrieks: Singularities and Acausalities in Relativistic Spacetimes. Oxford University Press. pp. 21. ISBN 0-19-509591-X.
^ Tipler, Frank J (1974). “Rotating Cylinders and the Possibility of Global Causality Violation”. Physical Review D 9: 2203. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.9.2203.
^ Earman, John (1995). Bangs, Crunches, Whimpers, and Shrieks: Singularities and Acausalities in Relativistic Spacetimes. Oxford University Press. pp. 169. ISBN 0-19-509591-X.
^ Hawking, Stephen; Kip Thorne, Igor Novikov, Timothy Ferris, Alan Lightman (2002). The Future of Spacetime. W. W. Norton. pp. 96. ISBN 0-393-02022-3.
^ Hawking, Stephen (1992). “Chronology protection conjecture”. Physical Review D 46: 603–611. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.46.603. http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRD/v46/p603.
^ Anderson, Mark (August 18-24, 2007), “Light seems to defy its own speed limit”, New Scientist 195 (2617): 10, http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-08/ns-lst081607.php
^ Franklin, Ben A. (March 11, 1982), “The night the planets were aligned with Baltimore lunacy”, New York Times.
^ Goodman, Linda (1978). Linda Goodman’s Love Signs, Leo-Aquarius chap. Harper and Row. ISBN 978-0060968960.
^ MacAdams, Lewis (January, 1982), Wet Magazine.
^ The Crater Baltimore Project
^ [gr-qc/0102010] Many worlds in one
^ Taking the Cosmic Shortcut – ABC Science Online
^ Transcript of interview with Dr. Marc Rayman at “Space Place”
^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/time/thinktime.html.
^ Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, Fifth Edition, p.1258.
^ Vaidman, Lev. “Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics”. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qm-manyworlds/. Retrieved on 2006-10-28.
^ Greenberger, Daniel M; Karl Svozil (2005). Quantum Theory Looks at Time Travel. arΧiv:quant-ph/0506027
^ BBC News – New model ‘permits time travel’
^ Goldstein, Sheldon. “Bohmian Mechanics”. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qm-bohm/. Retrieved on 2006-10-30.
^ Keller, Simon; Michael Nelson (September 2001). “Presentists should believe in time-travel” (PDF). Australian Journal of Philosophy 79.3: 333–345. doi:10.1080/713931204. http://people.bu.edu/stk/Papers/Timetravel.pdf.
^ This view is contested by another contemporary advocate of presentism, Craig Bourne, in his recent book A Future for Presentism, although for substantially different (and more complex) reasons.
^ a b see this discussion between two philosophers, for example
^ Friedman, John; Michael Morris, Igor Novikov, Fernando Echeverria, Gunnar Klinkhammer, Kip Thorne, Ulvi Yurtsever (1990). “Cauchy problem in spacetimes with closed timelike curves”. Physical Review D 42: 1915. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.42.1915. http://authors.library.caltech.edu/3737/.
^ “Time Travel and Resolving Paradoxes in Fiction”
^ Geroch, Robert (1978). General Relativity From A to B. The University of Chicago Press. p. 124.
^ Einstein Online: Actors on a changing stage

[edit] Bibliography
Davies, Paul (1996). About Time. Pocket Books. ISBN 0-684-81822-1.
Davies, Paul (2002). How to Build a Time Machine. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-100534-3.
Gale, Richard M (1968). The Philosophy of Time. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-00042-0.
Gott, J. Richard (2002). Time Travel in Einstein’s Universe: The Physical Possibilities of Travel Through Time. Boston: Mariner Books. ISBN 0-618-25735-7.
Gribbin, John (1985). In Search of Schrödinger’s Cat. Corgi Adult. ISBN 0-552-12555-5.
Miller, Kristie (2005). “Time travel and the open future”. Disputatio 1 (19): 223–232.
Nahin, Paul J. (2001). Time Machines: Time Travel in Physics, Metaphysics, and Science Fiction. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.. ISBN 0-387-98571-9.
Nahin, Paul J. (1997). Time Travel: A writer’s guide to the real science of plausible time travel. Writer’s Digest Books. Cincinnati, Ohio. ISBN 0-89879-748-9
Nikolic, H. Causal paradoxes: a conflict between relativity and the arrow of time. arΧiv:gr-qc/0403121
Pagels, Heinz (1985). Perfect Symmetry, the Search for the Beginning of Time. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-46548-1.
Pickover, Clifford (1999). Time: A Traveler’s Guide. Oxford University Press Inc, USA. ISBN 0-19-513096-0.
Randles, Jenny (2005). Breaking the Time Barrier. Simon & Schuster Ltd. ISBN 0-7434-9259-5.
Shore, Graham M. “Constructing Time Machines”. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A, Theoretical. arΧiv:gr-qc/0210048
Toomey, David (2007). The New Time Travelers: A Journey to the Frontiers of Physics. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-06013-3.

[edit] External links
Black holes, Wormholes and Time Travel Freeview Lecture. A Royal Society Lecture by Paul Davies provided by the Vega Science Trust
SF Chronophysics, a discussion of Time Travel as it relates to science fiction
On the Net: Time Travel by James Patrick Kelly in Asimov’s Science Fiction
Howstuffworks’ article on “How Time Travel Will Work”
Time Travel in Flatland?
NOVA Online: Time Travel
Professor Predicts Human Time Travel This Century Ronald Mallett, Professor at the University of Connecticut, has used Einstein’s equations to design an experiment to observe a time traveling neutron in a circulating light beam. He published his research in Physics Letters.
Through The Looking Glass: Time-Travel in Brane Theory An interview with a University of Hawaii research team seeking reverse-time communications using sterile neutrinos
Time Traveler Convention, at MIT – “Technically, you would only need one…”
Time Machines in Physics – almost 200 citations from 1937 through 2001
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
Time Machines
Time Travel and Modern Physics
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
Time Travel
Aparta Krystian. Conventional Models of Time and Their Extensions in Science Fiction A master’s thesis exploring conceptual blending in time travel.
Time travellers from the future ‘could be here in weeks’ Two mathematicians suggest that the Large Hadron Collider might create tiny wormholes that could allow time travel
Time machine on arxiv.org
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Dancing with the waves

June 25, 2009

Standing on an empty beach
and looking at the horizon
I think of you being over those waves
that’s when you in my heart make a breach
I enter in the cool water
dance with the waves
let them carry me away
and wonder why you’re not with me today
I wish those waves were your arms
to rock me as a baby
nothing more to be afraid
loose all faculty of speach
now that you are out of reach
let the water caress me like you never did
for many were the things unsaid
I will pretend the rocks are jewels instead
overwhelmed by your freshness
the foam a white veil
the wind in my hair your breath
cause I will think about you untill the day of my death.

Gun seller

June 21, 2009

Help us provide free content to the world by donating today!The Gun Seller
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1st edition (Heinemann)The Gun Seller (1996) is Hugh Laurie’s first novel. It concerns former Scots Guards officer Thomas Lang and his reluctant involvement in a conspiracy involving international arms dealers, terrorists, the CIA, the MoD, beautiful women and fast motorcycles.

Wary of becoming another “celebrity author”, Laurie initially submitted his manuscript pseudonymously, only revealing his identity after it had been accepted for publication and having been persuaded by his publicist to use his real name for the sake of publicity.

Contents [hide]
1 Plot summary
2 Major themes
3 Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
4 Possible sequel
5 Reception
6 External links
7 References

[edit] Plot summary
The Gun Seller tells the story of retired Army officer Thomas Lang, who lives a somewhat hand-to-mouth existence in London, his attention focused mainly on drinking whiskey and driving his motorcycle. His income stems from a variety of bodyguard, strongarm and mercenary jobs he undertakes, utilizing the skills he learned and contacts he made during his time in the army.

After being approached in Amsterdam by a man asking him to assassinate American businessman Alexander Woolf, Lang attempts to warn the intended victim at his Belgravia flat, finding Woolf gone and instead clashing with (and incapacitating) a mercenary, then encountering Woolf’s daughter Sarah. Afterward Lang finds himself under intense scrutiny from both the Ministry of Defence and the Central Intelligence Agency, who claim Woolf is an international drug smuggler currently under investigation. Intrigued by the sudden interest of two government agencies, Lang attempts to track down the man who approached him in Amsterdam, unexpectedly finding him in London by chance, and even more unexpectedly discovering that the man is Alexander Woolf himself.

Eventually Woolf and his daughter agree to meet Lang at dinner and answer his questions. The elder Woolf explains that he tried to hire Lang as a hitman to see if he was a “good man”, and admits he is under investigation, but not for selling drugs; rather, Woolf is of interest because of what he knows about a next-generation light attack helicopter. More disturbingly, Woolf and Sarah claim that a conspiracy is under way to stage a terrorist attack and subsequently promote the light helicopter by sending one in to eliminate the terrorists. Lang is skeptical, but begins to believe the story after he is kidnapped and interrogated about Woolf. He frees himself, finding a heavily tortured Alexander Woolf in a nearby room; Woolf is killed shortly thereafter as Lang makes his escape, killing his captors in the process.

With Sarah missing and now certain the conspiracy is real, Lang attempts to determine the main conspirators, aided by a friend of Sarah’s named Ronnie. After some investigating he centers on a CIA Deputy Director named Barnes, who (forcibly) takes him to meet the head conspirator: billionaire Naimh Murdah. Murdah, owner of the company that manufactures the helicopter, openly admits to the plot and plainly states that Lang will be helping to carry out the terrorist attack, backing up his declaration with an open and explicit threat on Sarah’s life. Murdah shoots dead a CIA agent accompanying him and Barnes just to prove that death means nothing anymore.

Lang is placed within a small terrorist group called the Sword of Justice as a Minnesotan named Ricky, officially in order to gather intelligence and minimize casualties. A Dutch politician is seemingly shot dead by Lang in Switzerland as a warm up activity by the Sword of Justice, although it was a set-up and the politician was briefed and was wearing body armour. During a brief return to London he encounters Sarah and confronts her regarding pictures, provided to him by his friend and handler Solomon, showing Sarah and Barnes together. Sarah admits to being a part of the conspiracy, but swears her father’s death was never part of the arrangement.

Lang and Sword of Justice arrive in Casablanca and successfully take control of the American Embassy there, holding a number of hostages. Barnes, Murdah, Sarah, and a number of other conspirators arrive in Casablanca to direct Lang and ensure the success of the plot. Lang covertly leaves the Embassy as directed, but as Murdah is talking to him Lang pulls a gun, slipped to him by Sarah as part of a plan they made in London. Lang forces Murdah into the Embassy at gunpoint and handcuffs him to a fire escape on the roof, then orders him to call off the helicopter attack. Murdah refuses, certain the attack will not come since he is in the line of fire, but Lang contends the greed of the remaining conspirators will ensure the attack goes as planned. Just as Lang predicted the helicopter attacks, killing one of the terrorists, but before it can make another pass Lang shoots it down with a Javelin missile he smuggled into the Embassy earlier.

Footage of the helicopter’s attack and destruction is shown worldwide via news networks covering the siege, ruining any chance of any military investing in the helicopter. Lang releases a statement (via the terrorists) to CNN outlining the conspiracy, ensuring that the plot is thwarted. The Ministry of Defence flies a tired Lang and Solomon back to England. After landing he is greeted by Ronnie, who managed to force the Ministry to allow her to ride with him from the airport, and makes it quite clear she is happy to see him.

The epilogue reveals that there was a 40% increase in sales of Javelin missile systems for six months following the attack on the Embassy.

[edit] Major themes
The concept of being a ‘good man’ is explored several times throughout the book and many of the ‘bad’ characters — especially those in the terrorist group Lang infiltrates — are portrayed in a relatively sympathetic light.

[edit] Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
In an interview found in the back of some Washington Square Press editions of the book, Laurie states that (at the time of the interview) he recently finished writing a screenplay adaptation of The Gun Seller for United Artists.[1]

[edit] Possible sequel
Laurie was rumored to have written a second book, Paper Soldier. Amazon.com announced that this novel would be published in mid-September 2007. However, as the date came and passed, Laurie’s agent announced that this was a mistake on Amazon’s part and that Laurie had not even written the novel yet. Amazon now states that Paper Soldier will be published in September 2009.[2]

[edit] Reception
In January 2009, thirteen years after the original English publication, a French translation of the novel entitled Tout Est Sous Controle (Everything’s Under Control) was published by Sonatine, and later topped book charts in March 2009 in France.[3][4]

[edit] External links
Excerpt from The Gun Seller: Chapter 1

[edit] References
^ Laurie, Hugh (November 1998) [1996]. “A Readers Club Guide”. The Gun Seller. Washington Square Press. p. 347. ISBN 0-671-02082-X. “As it happens, I’ve just finished the screenplay of The Gun Seller for United Artists”
^ Amazon.com: The Paper Soldier: Hugh Laurie: Books
^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/7991878.stm
^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/apr/12/france-hugh-laurie-house-novel
Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Gun_Seller”
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June 19, 2009


June 19, 2009

Suspicion in your eyes
just a device ,for unveiling me
stripping me to the bone
on my side a thorn
a tear that won’t fall
as a dried waste land
of something that is no more
time of endless blades
piercing my heart
bleeding dry my dignity
till I’m just a shadow of who I was
or of who I should be
in a universe of love and hate
in spite of all
the vivid tenacity of my disease
self destructing myself to please
the eager self hatred and disrespect
I just see as I look in retrospect
but my enduring self loathing
is just but a little scar that I disregard
hazardous heart is tearing me apart
I should have known it from the start
insanity way to go since we are apart
your features I know by heart
test me ask me the details
I will tell you with a halt of my heart
for I know your dreams better than you know yourself
your true nature I can tell you of
always you I will think of
you will have to love me
for in your fantasy
there will be a twist and your loathing
will turn into pity
and finally
into love
It will take time, although deep in I know it will never happen
please don’t stop me I need to think it will come true and it imagine
these words of mine are inslaved more than I am,
for they have no reason to be unless they you depict
every vestige of dignity
a heartbreaking echoes in the lost town
the dim faded lights enact the bestiality
serenades the fiery stubborness with which I thrive
dying a little each day monstrous blindness
fear in your eyes of appaled disenchantment
of you talking my love for grant
seashell eyes tightly enclosed
heart of stone of faded memories containing a universe
of lies and self deception
rays of humiliation garnished with infection
of bitterness
of the lymph of a withered flower that died before blooming
promises of a life unending metamorphise in ceaselss venom of death.

Don’t stop me now

June 18, 2009

I love him to bits and more

House under pressure

June 18, 2009

Cherokee people, Cherokee tribe

June 18, 2009

The Common European Framework

June 5, 2010

The Common European Framework
Level University of
ESOL exams
(Main Suite)
Advanced Certificate of
Proficiency in
English (CPE)
C2 Mastery Able to communicate for extended
periods on a wide range of topics. Make
very few errors of accuracy, have a wide
& idiomatic vocabulary.
Certificate in
English (CAE)
C1 Effective
Can communicate well though still make
minor accuracy mistakes. Still have
some problems understanding idiomatic
Intermediate First Certificate
in English (FCE)
B2 Vantage Able to communicate in English, though
still with lots of errors. Aware of all main
tenses and grammar structures. Quite
high level of vocabulary. Many students
have reached a learning plateau and get
stuck at this level.
English Test
B1 Threshold Can communicate with partial success.
Able to use basic grammar structures,
still rapidly learning new vocabulary.
Elementary Key English Test
A2 Waystage Able to use simple tenses & everyday
vocabulary items. Difficulty
communicating any more than general
topics. Steep learning curve at this
Beginners A1